Definitions

The list below includes terms frequently used when discussing aggregation, electricity, and renewable energy.

Basic Service

You receive National Grid’s Basic Service if you do not buy your electricity supply from a competitive electricity supplier. National Grid purchases your electricity for you and uses its Basic Service price to calculate the Supply Services charge on your electricity bill. National Grid’s Basic Service price changes every 6 months for residential and commercial customers and every 3 months for industrial customers. If you sign a private contract with a competitive electricity supplier, or you participate in an electricity aggregation, such as Pepperell Community Electricity, National Grid will no longer be your electricity supplier, so you will no longer have Basic Service.

Clean electricity

Clean electricity is electricity that is generated by a renewable energy resource, such as solar or wind. It is also known as green electricity or renewable electricity.

Electricity delivery (sometimes referred to simply as delivery and also as distribution)

This term refers to the service of delivering electricity to you through poles and wires, and also to the maintenance of that electricity delivery infrastructure. Electricity delivery charges appear on the Delivery Services portion of your National Grid electric bill. Delivery Services charges do not include the cost of the electricity itself. Those charges appear on the Supply Services portion of your National Grid electric bill.

Electricity supplier

An electricity supplier is a company that buys electricity on your behalf. The price that your electricity supplier charges appears in the calculation for the generation service charge on your National Grid electric bill. In Massachusetts, you can choose who your electricity supplier is:

  1. Your electric utility, National Grid, can serve as your supplier. In that case, you have National Grid’s Basic Service, and National Grid buys electricity for you and uses their own Basic Service price to calculate the Supply Services charge on your electric bill.
  2. You can sign a private contract with an electricity supplier. In that case, National Grid only delivers electricity to you, and they use the price provided by your electricity supplier to calculate the Supply Services charge on your electric bill.
  3. Your municipal government can establish an electricity aggregation and select an electricity supplier for you, as with Pepperell Community Electricity. In this case, National Grid only delivers electricity to you, and they use a Pepperell Community Electricity price to calculate the Supply Services charge on your electric bill.

Electricity supply (sometimes referred to simply as supply)

This term refers to the electricity that is delivered. The electricity Supply charge appears on the Supply Charge portion of your National Grid electric bill. The Supply Services charge is calculated by multiplying the amount of electricity you use (in kilowatt hours) by a price. The Supply Services charge does not include charges for the delivery of the electricity or for the maintenance of electricity-related infrastructure. Those charges appear on the Delivery Services portion of your National Grid electric bill.

Green electricity

Green electricity is electricity that is generated by a renewable energy resource, such as solar or wind. It is an informal name for electricity generated from renewable sources.

Renewable electricity

Renewable electricity is energy generated by sources that can be renewed as opposed to sources that can be used only once, such as fossil fuels. Under Massachusetts state law, a variety of resources qualify as renewable. The main sources of renewable electricity are solar, wind, and small hydroelectric projects. Renewable electricity is sometimes referred to informally as green electricity or clean electricity.

Renewable energy certificates (RECs)

RECs are a method of keeping track of renewable electricity. One REC is minted for every 1 megawatt-hour of electricity generated by a renewable energy project. RECs are tracked in a central database known as the NEPOOL GIS (generation information system). Electricity customers who wish to be able to say they are purchasing renewable electricity from the grid can pay for RECs in addition to paying for the electricity they use. Purchasing RECs gives an electricity customer the right to say she has used the electricity generated by renewable energy systems. Once a REC is purchased, it is then retired so that no one else can purchase it and lay claim to having used the same renewable electricity.

Renewable portfolio standard (RPS)

The RPS is a minimum amount of renewable energy that is required by law in the electricity sold in a state by the utilities and other electricity suppliers. Massachusetts has an RPS, as do many other states. An RPS specifies both the amount and type of renewable energy that must be included. Because of the Massachusetts RPS, all electricity sold in the state includes a minimum amount of renewable electricity. Massachusetts also has an APS, an alternative portfolio standard, which requires that all electricity include a minimum amount generated by alternative energy sources, which are typically highly efficient but not renewable. Read more on the Massachusetts DOER website.

Opt up

To opt up is to change from the default Pepperell Community Electricity offering to a program option with a higher renewable electricity content.

Opt out

To opt out of Pepperell Community Electricity is to leave the program and instead receive your electricity supply from a competitive supplier or through National Grid’s Basic Service. You have the right to participate in the program for as long as you like, and to opt out at any time, with no penalty or fee.

Utility

In Massachusetts, an electric utility is an electricity delivery, or distribution, company. Electric utilities do not generate electricity, but instead purchase it on your behalf, if you are not already using a competitive supplier. They are responsible for delivering electricity to you. You have no choice in your electric utility as they have geographic monopolies. In Pepperell, your electric utility is National Grid.