Renewable Energy

The Watertown Electricity Choice program is being designed so that it increases the amount of renewable energy in the community’s electricity supply.

By replacing the burning of fossil fuels with the use of renewable energy resources such as solar and wind energy, the City is working to:

Improve local air quality. Energy generated from renewable sources, such as the sun and wind, does not create the greenhouse gases that cause climate change and does not pollute the air.

Encourage the development of additional renewable energy projects. The City has prioritized buying electricity generated from New England-based renewable energy projects. By creating additional demand for the electricity generated by those projects, Watertown Electricity Choice is helping to stimulate the development of more renewable energy projects in our region.

Support regional businesses and jobs. Purchasing renewable energy from New England-based projects means supporting New England-based businesses and the jobs they provide to communities in our region.

What it means to buy renewable energy

Unless you have a renewable energy system, such as solar panels, plugged directly into your home or office, you cannot purchase the specific electricity that is generated by a renewable energy project. The electricity flowing through the grid is a mix, and it includes electricity generated by renewable energy projects as well as those generated by fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, and other resources such as nuclear. The individual sources cannot be separated out at the level of the grid.

As a result, a separate system has been created to keep track of renewable energy and to allow it to be bought and sold. That system uses renewable energy certificates, or RECs.

What is a REC?

Every time a renewable energy project generates 1 megawatt-hour of electricity, 1 REC is minted. That REC can then be sold. Purchasing a REC gives you, and no one else, the right to say you used the electricity from that renewable energy project.

Anyone who wishes to purchase renewable electricity, must then purchase 2 things: they must purchase the electricity itself from the grid, and then they must also purchase RECs that equal the amount of electricity they use. (These two costs are often bundled together, and they are why renewable energy costs a bit more.) Whoever buys RECs has the right to say they used the electricity generated by the associated renewable energy projects. Those RECs are then retired so that they cannot be purchased by anyone else, and no one else can claim to have used that electricity.

Watertown Electricity Choice will purchase RECs in order to integrate an increased amount of renewable energy into the City’s electricity supply. No one else will be able to claim the energy associated with the RECs that Watertown buys.

The minimum amount of renewable electricity required by state law

Massachusetts state law requires that all electricity sold in the state must include a minimum amount of electricity generated by renewable sources and also by alternative, highly efficient sources that are not considered renewable. These requirements are known as the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and the Alternative Portfolio Standard (APS). The required amounts increase a little every year.

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts requires that all electricity supply products include a minimum of 59% from renewable energy resources in 2023, 62% in 2024, 63% in 2025, and 69% in 2026, including:

  • 22% from new (1998 or later) renewable energy resources in the New England region (MA Class I RECs) in 2023, 24% in 2024, 27% in 2025, and 30% in 2026
  • 37% from other types of renewable energy resources as well as energy sources that are clean but not renewable in 2023, 38% in 2024, 36% in 2025, and 39% in 2026

(You can download a spreadsheet with the specific required amounts from this page on the Massachusetts state website under the header RPS and APS Minimum Standards.)

Watertown Electricity Choice integrates additional renewable energy above the minimum required by the state.